Technical Education in Turkey, Gazi University Journal of The Faculty of Technical Education, Vol 3, No 1, June 1991, pp. 137-141

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Yayınlandığı Yer: VAROL, N.: Technical Education in Turkey, Gazi University Journal of The Faculty of Technical Education, Vol 3, No 1, June 1991, pp. 137-141


Nurhayat VAROL

Technical Teacher

The junior colleges. Vocational and technical high schools that have been established in Turkey within the last few years are the best examples of Turkey’s commitment to technical education. There are more than 655 Vocational and technical high schools in Turkey whose names are called under different titles.
This article will discuss today’s Vocational and technical high schools, the undergraduate of the technical education faculties, the employment fields of graduates from vocational and technical high schools and finally some recommendations will be given.


The distribution of technical and Vocational high schools are given below III
Name of School Total Number
1-Anatolian High Schools 31

2-Anatolia Vocational High Schools 3

3-Boarding Industrial Vocational High Schools 50

4-Industrial Practice Art Schools 15

5-Industrial Vocational High Schools 407

6-Secondary Schools Pertianing to Ind. Voc. High Sch. 22

7-Technical Education Centre for Adults 7

8-Technical High Schools 156


Some courses in Anatolia High Schools are taken in an important western foreign language like English German or French and the students learn the foreign language that is spoken in the high schools in the preparation first classes. The education period of Anatolia High Schools, is five years and these schools produce technicians Who know a foreign western language. Vocational programs applied by these High schools are Airplane Engines, Automatic Control, Building Art, Computer Science, Construction, Electric Work, Electronics, Journalism, Machine Design and Medicine Electronics.


The education period of the Anatolia Vocational High School is four year The first year the students concentate on learning a wes tern language The second year they begin classes related to vocational subjects some of which are held in western language only The vocational programs of these schools are Plastic Arte Ship Electronics and Communication Ship Engines and Ship Navigation
The students who complete their fifth year continue primary school or those who leave their secondary school can take these industrial practise courses which generally last one year. These courses are listed below.
Autoelectric, Bricklaying, Built of Brick, Building Stone Work, Carpentry, Coilwork, Cold Metalwork, Electric Installation, Electric Welding, Heating and Ventilating, Industrial Machining, Furniture Making, Priting and Typesetting, Joinery, Plumbing, Making Moulds, Milling, Motor Repair, Oxy-Acetylene Welding, Plaster Whitewash and Drywall, Raido Repairer, Reinforced Concrete Work, Seamanship, Shoemaker, Technical Drawing (Building) Technical Drawing (Mechanic). Turning, Type etting and Priting, Wooden Building, and Wooden Work.

These schools, last three years after the secondary schools, the goal is to prepare the pupils for industry in different technical fields. There are 43 different vocational programs in these schools.
Art of Tile Making and Ceramics, Automotive, Bookbindering end. Silk Screen Printing, Building (Construction), Building (Construction) Art, Cartography and Cadestral, Casting, Chemistry, Deck Work, Decorative Stone Maker, Electrical Desing and Installation, Electronics, Electro-Mechanical Convertors, Faundry, Food Industry, Furniture and Decoration, Hygienic Installation, Industrial Painting and Decoration, Industrial Machining, Librarian, Machine Art, Making Moulds, Metalwork, Metallurgy, Mining, Modeling, Offset Printing, Paint Finishing, Photography and Cliche, Plastic Technology, Print Restoration, Ship Electronics and Comminications, Ship Engine, Ship Navigation, Shoemaker, Telecommunication, Text Typographic Printing, Type Setting, Water Products, Weaving Heavy Equipment Operation.

Adults who complete primary school which lasts five years in Turkey, and who can’t find possibilities to continue their forwards studies, or who are unemployed can attend these Technical Education Centres in order to a acquire vocation. The study period of Technical Education Centres continues one year and has the same study programs as the Industrial Practical Art School except without offering Shoemaker and Seamanship.

Technical and Industrial Vocational High Schools have the some educational programs in first year. Up the second class of Technical High School’s program differs form the Industrial Vocational High School and only the pupils who are the most successful in lessons like Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry vocational field courses can be aceepted by the Technical High School. The education period of this school lasts four years. Applied programs are;
Airplane Engines Maintenance and Repair, Building Architecture Building Substructure, Chemistry, Computer Science, Electrical Design and Installation, Electronics, Industrial Electronics, Making Moulds Machine Design, Mechanical Graphics, Medical Electronics, Microelectronics, Motor Repair.

The people who finish their High School can continue a vocational education that is organized into three sessions and finishes in one year in order to learn a technical job. After completing this program students earn a Vocational High School diploma.

The students who study in different departments of the techical education faculty take a veriety of subjects in order to their undergraduate studies. There are also verious credit hours the same program between technical education faculties. For example Firat and Gazi Universities have automotive (motors) programs that belong to the Department of the Mecahnical Education.
Even though the automotive program of Fırat University has about 20 credit hours less than Gazi University’s, students who graduate from these automotive programs receive the same diploma and can work at the same vocational high schools. The Technical Education Faculty of Firat University was established after 1982 while The Technical Education Faculty of Gazi University was founded in 1937. As a result the technical courses of the technical Education Faculty of Gazi University are based on the education schelude of 1937 which is scheluded to be updated to current standards in 1991.
The Technical Education Faculty of Firat University changed its schelude and removed some out-of-date courses from their programs and added contemporary courses like computer science a few years ago.
Table 1 shows the distribution of courses that belong to the automotive program of the Department for Mechanical Education in Firat University. The total credit hours of this program have the value of 122 credits that are equal to 206 hours. Theory courses are equal to one credit hour while practical courses are equal to one half credit hour.
Table 1: Distribution of the courses in automotive programs in Firat University (2)
Educational Courses 12

General Cultures 28

Basic Formation 30

Technical Courses 30
Educational courses such as Psychology, Sociology, Measurement and Evaluation in Eduction etc. Are offered. General culture courses include Principles of Atatürk and History of Turkish Revalution, elective courses (Physical Education, Music, Art or Printing), Turkish and Foreign Language, Courses that belong to basic formation are Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Technical Drawing, Statics, Dynamics, Strength of Materials, Machine Elements, Materials, Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanices, Computer Programing, Workshop ORganization, Term Paper and Hydraulic Machinery. The other courses about automotives are inclued under the technical course headings.

The technical education faculties have for their gaol the education of instructors for the Vocational and technical high schools. Unfortunately, due to low salaries of teachers in Turkey, technical teachers find work in private companies or factories, Some also open workshops or start their own business.
The newly established two-year vocational School of higher education (junior colleges) are the new workplaces for technical teachers and even for engineers. Especially the graduates of technical education faculties who continue their master degree in a technical education faculty take the goal to be research assistant in junior colleges.
Technical teachers have a large number of advantages because they can find a job easily through the Technical and Industrial Vocational High Schools. These schools will have about 13470 vacant places for technical and vocaticinal teachers. This problem should be solved by three Technical Education Faculties and by the Vocational Education Faculty placed in Gazi University in Ankara.


  1. The number of the lecturers must be increased, and well educated and qualified lecturers must be trained. The vocational and Technical Education Faculties have the most important responsibility in achieving this goal. The Engineering Facultie should produce engineers who are employed at the tecnhical an vocational High School, but these engineers should take some educational methods courses before they begin teaching.

  1. The existing vocational schools the higher education (junior colleges) must be improved instead of established new ones. Lack of laboratories and workshops must be as soon as possible at the junior colleges.

  1. The junior colleges have many vacant position for lecturers. Especially, the Vocational and Technical Education Faculties must train special lecturers in their M.Sc. and Ph.D. programs for junion college (the vocational Schools of Higher Education). Because there are only one Vocational and three Technical Education Faculties in Turkey, it will not be possible to fill the vacant places of lecturers at these junior colleges. There fore, through the M. Sc. and Ph. D. programs of the engineering faculties, students should be trained as specially educated lecturers.

  1. The salaries of the technical teachers are very low at this time. As long as the salaries of the technical teachers are not improved, graduates will continue to find jobs outside education.


    1. Ministry of National Education, The General Directorat of Boys Technical Education, Pub1ishing number: 8, Ankara, 1990.

    1. Undergraduate cirricula of the Automotive program of Fırat University Elazığ, Turkey, 1990, (Unpub1ished).

Yayınlandığı Yer: VAROL, A.; VAROL, N.: Fırat Üniversitesi Teknik Eğitim Fakültesi Döner Sermaye İşletmesi Kanalıyla Açılan Pedagojik Formasyon Kursları, Çağdaş Eğitim, Yıl:19, Sayı:200, S.4-9, Haziran 1994, Ankara.


Doç. Dr. Asaf VAROL Öğr. Gör. Nurhayat VAROL

Fırat Üniversitesi Fırat Üniversitesi

29 Nisan 1991 Tarih ve 2335 sayılı Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı Tebliğler dergisine göre, öğretmenliğe atanacakların atanmalarına esas olan branşlarıyla mezun oldukları yüksek öğretim programları yeniden düzenlenmiş ve böylece öğretmen açığı bulunan branşlara eleman temini hedeflenmiştir. Bu tebliğ sayesinde örneğin Makine Mühendisi olan bir kişi, Teknik ve Endüstri Meslek Liselerinde Makine, Motor, Uçak Motorları, Mikroteknoloji, İş Makineleri. ve kalıpçılık branşlarına öğretmen olarak atanmaları mümkün olabilmektedir. Ancak bu durumdakilerin müracaat ederken 21 kredilik “Öğretmenlik Meslek Bilgisi” derslerini aldıklarını belgelendirmeleri gerekmektedir.
Fırat Üniversitesi Teknik Eğitim Fakültesi; Eğitim Bilimleri Bölümü bünyesinde ve Döner Sermaye işletmeciliği kanalı ile, yöremizde bulunan ve öğretmenlik yapmak isteyen bu durumdaki yüksekokul mezunlarının taleplerine cevap vermek amacıyla Öğretmenlik Meslek Bilgisi kurslarının açılmasını kararlaştırılmıştır.
Bu makalede Öğretmenlik Meslek Bilgisi Kurslarının açılma nedenleri, kurs programı, katılanların branşlara dağılımı, kursta hedeflenen amaçlara ulaşıp ulaşılamadığı konuları işlenecek ve sonuçta gerçek gözlemlere dayanan öneriler sunulacaktır.

Türk Milli Eğitiminin düzenlenmesinde esas olan amaç ve ilkeler, eğitim sisteminin genel yapısı; öğretmenlik mesleği gibi temel hükümler Milli Eğitim Temel Kanunu çerçevesinde yürütülmektedir. Milli Eğitim Temel Kanunu’nun 43-45 ci maddeleri, öğretmenlik, öğretmen nitelikleri ve seçimi ile ilgili olup yüksek öğrenimleri sırasında pedagojik formasyonunu kazanmamış olan öğretmenlerin ihtiyaç duyulan alanlarda öğretmenliğe atanmaları halinde bu gibilerin adaylık dönemi içinde yetişmeleri için Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı’nca gerekli tedbirlerin alınacağı hükme bağlanmıştır [1]. Bu amaçla Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı Tebliğler Dergisinde okul öncesi kurumlara ve ilkokullara atanacak öğretmenlerin atanmalarına esas olan branşlarla mezun oldukları yüksek öğretim programlarını gösteren bir çizelge hazırlanmıştır. Bu çizelgede atanmaya esas olan branşlar için öğretmenlerin, maaş karşılığı okutacağı esas ve diğer dersler tek tek belirlenmiştir.[2].
Sözkonusu tebliğler dergisine göre Fen Fakülteleri Edebiyat Fakülteleri, Fen Edebiyat Fakülteleri Dil ve Tarih Coğrafya Fakültesi, Güzel Sanatlar Fakülteleri Mühendislik-Mimarlık Fakülteleri Ziraat Fakülteleri Türk Musiki Devlet Konservatuarları, Devlet Konservatuarları ile Eğitim Yüksekokulları (Eğitim Yüksekokulu Sanat Eğitim Yüksekokulu, Kız Sanat Eğitimi Yüksekokulu) dışındaki yüksekokul mezunlarından, öğretmenlik formasyon belgesi olmayanların veya en az 21 kredilik “Öğretmenlik Meslek Bilgisi Dersleri’ni” aldığını belgelendiremeyenlerin başvurularının kabul edilmeyeceği belirtilmektedir [2]. Bu açıklamalar neticesinde bazı üniversiteler Eğitim Fakülteleri veya Eğitim Bilimleri bölümlerinde Döner Sermaye İşletmeleri aracılığı ile Pedagojik Formasyon kursları düzenlemişlerdir.
O dönemlerde batı illerindeki bazı üniversiteler gazetelere verdikleri ilanlarla Döner Sermaye aracılığı ile öğretmenlik Meslek Bilgisi Kursu açacaklarını duyurmuşlardır. İlimizde bu ilanları gören birkaç özel dershane hocalarının; kursların üniversitemizde de düzenlenmesi talebi, Teknik Eğitim Fakültesi’nin. ilgili kurullarında görüşülmüş ve kursların Döner Sermaye aracılığı ile Teknik Eğitim Fakültesi bünyesinde açılmasına karar verilmiştir. Çünkü:

  1. Batı illerinde açılan Pedagoji Formasyon kurslarına katılacak adayların önemli bir kısmı evli olup kursa katılmak için evlerinden uzun süreli ayrılmaları aile içinde sıkıntıya sebep olabilecekti.

  1. Kursa katılmak için başka bir ile taşınma ve yatacak yer temini gibi sorunlar yüzünden kursiyerler mağdur olabilecek ve hatta kursa katılmaktan vazgeçebileceklerdi.

  1. Elazığ ili konumu itibariyle doğu illerinin kavşak noktasında bulunduğundan, üniversitemizde açılacak bu: kursa yakın illerden de katılım mümkün olabilecekti.

  1. Üniversitelerin önemli görevleri arasında bulunan hususlardan biri de yöre halkına ihtiyaç duyulacak konularda hizmet götürmektir. Bu hizmeti yapacak olanaklara sahipse, bu tür bir sorumluluğu yüklenmekten kaçınmamaları gerekir.

  1. Kurs açılması talebinde bulunan ilk grup adayların bir çoğu dershanelerde görevli öğretmenlerdi. Kursun Elazığ’da açılması durumunda kurs saatleri haricinde dersane işlerini yürütebilecek, dolayısıyla ücret kayıpları sözkonusu olmayacaktı.

Yukarıda belirtilen hususları göz önüne alan Teknik Eğitim Fakültesi; Öğretmenlik Meslek Bilgisi Kursları düzenlemeyi kararlaştırmıştır. Fakülte bu kararı alırken kesinlikle kar etmek ilkesinden hareket etmemiştir. Ancak derse girecek öğretim elemanlarının ders ücretlerini karşılamak amacıyla belli bir ücretin de alınması gerekirdi. Kurs ücretleri başlangıçta oldukça düşük düzeyde tutulmuştu. Nitekim kursa kayıt olanlardan birkaçının ayrılması nedeniyle I. ve II. dönem kurslardan zarar edilmiştir. Bu gerçek kurs düzenlenmesinin kar amacıyla yapılmadığını açık şekilde simgelemektedir.
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